Polygamy in Nature and Religion

January 16, 2017 at 3:58 pm | Posted in Religion | Leave a comment

If you look at the animal kingdom, there is an observable pattern to recognize some animals are polygynous, the male having multiple mates, and some that are polyandrous, the female has multiple mates. Note this pattern: When the female is larger like in bees, ants, and humpback whales, then the female has multiple mates. When the male is larger, as in chickens, lions, to lionfish, males mate with multiple females.

If you create a monogamous pairing of chickens with only one rooster and one hen, then the rooster will mount the hen too frequently, causing stress to the hen, often creating a bald spot of plucked back feathers, and it will reduce her egg production. For chickens, the rooster to hen ratio is generally best at one to five or one to ten. With human males being about 15% larger than human females, you would biologically expect humans to be slightly polygamous, and when monogamous, for females to be stressed with too much sex, or males to be frustrated with too little.

Many people see Christianity as the primary source of strict monogamy in world history. However, this is due to a lack of knowledge of history, and a lack of defense of polygamy, as a taboo too dangerous to consider.

It was the Greek reformer Solon who instituted strict marital monogamy in Greek culture in 600 B.C. While economists (David D. Friedman, Price Theory, Ch. 21) can show that polygamy by itself benefits females assuming they have a choice in the matter to benefit from increased choice. But there is no evidence that Solon created strict monogamy to reduce women’s choices, instead it was for the opposite side, to reduce competition among men. In order to facilitate the change, several cultural conditions were created or solidified, such as state sponsored prostitution, support for homosexuality, as well as a common belief that romantic love was only between men.

By the time of Christ, pagan Greek culture had practiced centuries of strict marital monogamy, as well as did the pagan Roman culture they influenced. The first six Roman emperors had 25 wives between them, but all by serial monogamy of divorcing one to marry the next. So even the Roman emperors were bound by the power of their pagan cultural taboos.

So what of Jews under the rule of Greeks and then Romans? I’ll let George Joyce provide the answer in his “Christian Marriage: An Historical and Doctrinal Study”  (1933):

“When the Christian Church came into being, polygamy was still practiced by the Jews. It is true that we find no references to it in the New Testament; and from this some have inferred that it must have fallen into disuse, and that at the time of our Lord the Jewish people had become monogamous. But the conclusion appears to be unwarranted. Josephus in two places speaks of polygamy as a recognized institution: and Justin Martyr makes it a matter of reproach to Trypho that the Jewish teachers permitted a man to have several wives. Indeed when in 212 A.D. the lex Antoniana de civitate gave the rights of Roman Citizenship to great numbers of Jews, it was found necessary to tolerate polygamy among them, even when though it was against Roman law for a citizen to have more than one wife. In 285 A.D. a constitution of Diocletian and Maximian interdicted polygamy to all subjects of the empire without exception. But with the Jews, at least, the enactment failed of its effect; and in 393 A.D. a special law was issued by Theodosius to compel the Jews to relinquish this national custom. Even so they were not induced to conform.”

Here we see the interesting case that pagan Rome restricted and persecuted polygamy and the Jews for practicing it, including Diocletian, an equally infamous persecutor of Christians. And then this pattern even continued with the Christian emperor Theodosius. After this period, Christian Roman Emperors would continue the pagan Roman pattern of increasing the punishment for polygamy so that Emperor Justinian outlawed polygamy to the degree that only a few of the wealthiest Jews were able to avoid coerced divorce and keep their wives.by paying a fine of ten pounds of gold in 535 A.D. By the ninth century, polygamy brought the death penalty. In order to end over eight centuries of persecution, Judaism in Europe under Rabbi Gershom decided to self-monitor among European Judaism and prohibit it among their own in the 11th Century.

This is similar to what happened to Mormons in America. The persecution of them became so great they would become the first religion to claim to receive a message from God suspending polygamy. They likewise began rigorous self-policing and persecution of their own fundamentalist sub-sects who refused to give up polygamy.

But this does not address the New Testament for Christians, and how Christians came to generally oppose polygamy. Many centrally influential Christian writers admitted that the New Testament did not prohibit polygamy, including Augustine, Thomas Aquinas, and Martin Luther, who wrote:

“I confess that I cannot forbid a person to marry several wives, for it does not contradict the Scripture. If a man wishes to marry more than one wife he should be asked whether he is satisfied in his conscience that he may do so in accordance with the word of God. In such a case the civil authority has nothing to do in the matter.” De Wette II, 459, ibid., pp. 329–330.

But still others made and still make a claim that it is prohibited by a few different Biblical arguments. First is a claim already disproven by the history above, that polygamy was already not practiced by Jews of the first century, and so didn’t require specific opposition. Next is an argument based on the parallels in Paul’s phrase, “Let each man have his own wife and each woman her own husband.” However, the English of this phrase hides a detail from the Greek that proves and defends polygamy was assumed and allowed.The phrase uses two different words for “own”: heautou and idios. The difference is to clarify that a husband has a wife exclusively that he cannot share. The wife has a husband using a collective “own”, such as in the phrase “Each man return to his own city”. In this case, the man does not exclusively own the city in opposition to others as co-owners, just as a wife’s ownership of her husband does not prohibit other wives owning him as husband.

The final argument is the phrase used for a qualification for elders, “husband of one wife” in most English translations. However, the Greek is mias gunaikos andra. The word mias can mean either “one” or “first”. Context should decide, but in church history, a cultural bias colored the interpretation from the beginning. Gentile converts to Christianity, coming from Greco-Roman opposition to polygamy would assume it mean “one”. But Jewish converts to Christianity would assume this is requiring a man who would keep and not divorce his first wife. Indeed, even though John Calvin opposed polygamy, he acknowledged that the early Jewish Christians continued in polygamy.

Whether one accepts the Jewish or pagan Greek method of interpretation depends on if one contemplates Jesus statement, “Until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law.” In other words, the Old Testament’s concepts and definitions of marriage are used with Jesus correcting misinterpretation. Jesus is not creating replacement definitions.. In contrast to this is the gnostic approach which tries to argue that the Law was evil and materialistic, as was God in the Old Testament, and Jesus was trying to oppose the Old Testament God. In this, official Gentile Christianity orthodoxy, at least through Imperial decrees and laws, chose, perhaps partly by accident, partly by excessive anti-Jewish bias, to follow the gnostic approach to argue against polygamy, even if it was generally critical of gnosticism.

Another issue is an attempt to reinterpret Old Testament texts claiming support for monogamy, such as Adam having only one wife, or Abraham’s second wife causing conflict. But yet, if these did not imply a strict monogamy then, then they can’t be correctly interpreted later to do so. Take the example of Abraham, the example of faith, lived with at least a third wife and unnamed concubines without any implied wrongness.

Further, God used a metaphor of Himself as a polygamist with two wives in Ezekiel 23. To claim that God would use the example of something unethical as an attribute of Himself is dangerously close to blasphemy.

Given that I argue for the legitimacy of polygamy, the question arises, how do you stop the abuse of it? The New Testament did not have to provide an answer as the Old Testament, along with the Jewish understanding of marriage was sufficient. In Exodus 21:10 a man cannot take an additional wife unless he can do so without diminishing his financial support of his existing wife, or her sexual needs. Even a very wealthy man can only satiate a limited number of women unless they all enter the marriage with low sex needs. Further, a wife with sexual desire greater than her husband effectively prohibits him from ever taking a second wife. This limitation makes each additional wife beyond one gets exponentially more difficult. This in effect provides a give and take balancing that reduces the problem of the excessively mounted and stressed hen, or the under-satiated rooster.

The Mathematical Restitution Formula and Its Application

April 23, 2012 at 3:48 pm | Posted in Anarchism, Decentralism, Political theory, Religion | 1 Comment

[This article was originally posted on Strike-the-root.com on Sept. 28,2004. However, in one of that website’s format changes, mathematical symbols were lost. So it is reprinted here. A few minor corrections and hyperlinks added as well.]

I still find it hard to believe that I may be the first person to make tort and criminal restitution into a mathematical formula that encourages both sides to be as honest and fair as possible in claiming what the most just and equitable amount of restitution should be. Since I am so far unsuccessful in finding this formula in other writers, I will call this the Hobbsian Just Restitution Formula until someone can show me someone who derived it before I did, originally around 1999 though not published till now.

In any case where a wrong is claimed to have been done, whether by intent or negligence, there is the temptation for the alleged perpetrator to seek paying less restitution than is just, and for the victim to seek receiving more restitution than is just. This may not always be so, but a justice system should have a way to minimize this tendency. This formula is a way that can minimize the temptation for each party to have the scales of justice lean in their favor instead of truly balancing.

Take the restitution claimed appropriate by the perpetrator to be Rx, and by the victim to by Ry. Now if they are unable to resolve this alone, they can take this to a third party to act as an arbitrator and judge, whose decision is Rj. Assume for now that Rj is not beyond the bounds of Rx to Ry. If so, then Rx ≤ Rj ≤ Ry. Now here is the important formula to determine who pays the cost of the arbitrator:

Ct (Ry – Rj) / (Ry – Rx) = Cy

and Ct (Rj – Rx) / (Ry – Rx) = Cx

where Ct is the total cost of arbitration and Cy and Cx are the costs of arbitration for the victim and perpetrator to pay respectively.

By this method, if the victim has requested restitution equal to the arbitrated decision, then he will pay for none of the costs of arbitration. Likewise the perpetrator could avoid paying arbitration costs if he had chosen what the arbiter decides. In the event that the judgment falls in between, then they each will have to pay part of the cost in direct proportion to how much they desired more than the arbitrated decision of an equitable amount.

By this method, each party would be financially encouraged to avoid excessive claims to minimize the arbitration costs to be paid. If they can come to a point where the spread of desired restitution is less than estimated arbitration costs, then they could recognize it might be cheaper to resolve the issue without a professional paid arbitrator. The more complex the issue, the more arbitration will likely cost, and the incentive to avoid paying for arbitration also increases.

It is possible that the arbitrator could decide that appropriate restitution is beyond the Rx to Ry borders. Rules can be decided before hand if the boundary points would be limiting or not. It is also possible that the parties do not let the arbitrator know the boundary points until after the decision is reached, if one or both feel that such might unfairly influence the result. They could then just be intended for use to determine who pays arbitration costs. However, it would still be necessary for the parties to know each other’s desired restitution value. It would make no sense to keep it secret from the counter party, go to arbitration, and then discover that you would have agreed to an amount without an arbitrator.

What about lawyers? Different arbitrators might allow or disallow them. In this system, they would rarely be necessary, and most often increase the expected cost for each side that uses one. An arbitrator should be unbiased, and should help both sides explain as well as understand the strength of each argument given by each side. An arbitrator’s goal is not only to make a just decision, but also to explain and convince both sides that the decision is just. This is not the goal of lawyers.

What about non-monetary compensation? This is a significant possibility, and a further complication that could add to the cost of arbitration. If a proposed compensation is to be labor of the perpetrator to the victim, then as the victim would act as employer, then the repayment wage rate would have to be agreed upon as any other wage rate. The arbitrator could help decide this, as well as look for third parties who would accept labor and then pay the labor wage to the victim.

This system does not require the alleged perpetrator to agree that any wrong was done. He can even claim that since no wrong was done, he is owed compensation for the counter party wasting his time. The formula would still encourage him to not overestimate this counter claim.

Additionally, despite modern practice, there is no reason to think this system would not also be best for criminal cases. Punitive damages could be part of restitution paid to the victim, not as fines paid to the state. When victims do not receive restitution through a criminal justice system, there is an increase in both extremes of letting crimes go unreported and unpunished, due to lack of incentive, and of victims groups advocating punishments that do more harm to the perpetrator than would be done by fair restitution. (See Bruce Benson’s books The Enterprise of Law and To Serve and Protect for historical examples of restitution-based free market courts and their successes, as well as the failures created when states monopolized criminal justice systems.)

Religious groups have usually realized that to submit to states in the area of justice is to make the religion a pawn of the state. Jews have always had a Beit Din to resolve problems religious, civil and sometimes even criminal. Islam has Sharia courts for the same purpose. Christians are required to do the same, per the Apostle Paul in 1 Corinthians 6. (However, I don’t know of Christian groups that actually have established even informal courts or respected arbitrators for this purpose, other than religious bodies intended to decide purely religious dogmatic conflicts.)

There are many possible complications, but none of them really diminish the value of this formula. What if one party refuses to go to any arbitrator? What if some arbitrators are corrupt? What about appeals? These and many more are all legitimate questions. To answer them all would make this essay a textbook. However, other writers have already insightfully answered these questions, including Murray Rothbard’s The Ethics of Liberty, Power and Market, Bruce Benson’s The Enterprise of Law, Morris and Linda Tannehill’s The Market for Liberty, and David Friedman’s The Machinery of Freedom.

These authors (and more like Anthony de Jasay and J.C. Lester) provide quite different methodologies, but reach similar conclusions about the efficiency of polycentric law and arbitration compared to authoritarian, conquest-based law.

Could this be the kernel of truth to the concept of justice? Is justice something that must be created and defined by a government whose origins in conquest of weaker parties precede and supercede its concept of justice (sovereign immunity)? Or is justice a principle where conflicting parties resolve disputes without allegiance to any party above, beyond, superceding, or immune to justice?

Given that people tend to be utility maximizers, judicial systems will be tools to maximize the utility of those who control them. In a state, its laws are written to maximize the utility of the ruling coalitions as opposed to the whole ‘people,’ the subjects, or any other partition of it. If any social group seeks to be classless and judicially independent, it cannot form a state where any weaker party is subject to law made by the stronger. Nor can any part of the group be immune to the principles of justice.

There could be many social groups that could make themselves judicially sovereign-independent. Religious groups mentioned already have such rules, and might intend to be an example to outsiders in being independent from states. It is possible to have multiple overlapping social judicial groups, but this would create hierarchical limitations, as individuals would need priorities as to which social group (with its justice) to place primary association. For example, a conflict arises between parties who are in the same religious judicial group and the same business judicial group. Both groups could not require all members to seek justice for internal conflicts only through that group’s arbitration system. Or if these groups do, and have differing memberships, then individuals who joined both would have to violate one of the groups’ primacy agreements if such a conflict arose.

The reason that justice without sovereign immunity would naturally exist in cohesive social groups is that individuals obtain significant utility from their social group, and ostracism by one’s social group could provide a persuasive influence to those who would consider refusing to accept an arbitrated decision. Several millennia of diasporic Jewish social groups all over the world provide plenty of historical evidence for this non-state judicial system to be sufficient to maintain internal peace and order, especially relative to a state justice system. Social groups then compete non-geographically in the market for members, based on many factors, justice likely being one.

Christian Deism

April 4, 2012 at 11:20 am | Posted in Religion | 1 Comment

Food for religious thought. This is really only for readers interested religious thought and doesn’t address libertarian thought, unlike most of my posts.

I’ve long understood Zechariah 13 as an argument for “Christian deism” for lack of a better word in its tie to 1 Corinthians 13:8. These passages say prophecy, unclean spirits, speaking in tongues, (supernatural) knowledge will cease. Everyone hates me using the phrase Christian deism.  By that I mean that God stopped supernatural interference in the world after a point in time, both his own and that of angels or demons.

Zech. 13 implies this will happen in the time/generation of Messiah. 1 Cor. 13:8 doesn’t say when, only to expect it when the “perfect” has come and so these supernatural interferences in the world (“the partial” of 1 Cor. 13:8-10).  Jesus granted supernatural gifts to his apostles (his own generation) and they were able to pass it on through laying on hands. There is no Biblical statement nor history that those receivers could also pass it on.  So we might presume that, at most, the cutting off of the supernatural happened maybe one generation after Messiah.

And that coincidentally ties in to the best explanation of “the perfect” of 1 Cor. 13:10.  The completion and closing of all scriptural canon, which happened about a generation after Messiah, completed by writers of His own generation.

While traditional Jewish thought makes God actually choose to make the sun rise every day, etc., that isn’t nearly as different as it seems.  We may broaden that statement to say God chooses to limit Himself so as to maintain the laws of nature he created.   Separate that statement from God interfering with those laws of nature, i.e. supernatural interference.  Compare Moses’ request to see the full power of God in Exodus 33. God couldn’t allow that because God has to limit himself so that humans can have our own existence/free will.

(Tangent: This gets into the medieval scholastic theological split of Thomas Aquinas vs. William Occam.  Respectively, viewing God as the logical structure of the universe vs. God as pathmaker through the universe. Stated that way, I think they are both right instead of opposites, and other formulations of their philosophies are corrected by Karl Popper’s critical rationalism that solves problems of strong rationalism and irrationalism.)

So in my view God needed to limit the supernatural in the world so that we can be even more judged by how he designed the natural world (Romans 1:19). But since Satan and his angels also influenced/supernaturally altered the world, God had to first bring the world to a perfect balance (recall 1 Cor. 13:10) so he could end both His own interferences and that of the demons as also with Zech. 13. (See also book of Enoch)

I don’t think it best to think of God as limiting his foreknowledge so as to not require predestination, as if one necessarily causes the other.  That problem is avoided by an actuarial perspective of God’s knowledge.  No actuarial formula is the “cause” for an outcome. But if the formulation has effectively infinite knowledge, it provides effectively infinite accuracy.  There was a good action movie called Paycheck that I thought did a good job of explaining foreknowledge without foreordination of details. Plus it provides a view of how God could provide a means to answer prayers within the world by having foreknown them, and adjusting all “butterfly effects” before setting the world in perfect balance.

Likewise, I don’t see a meaningful difference between beyond degree of those who think miracles happen today and snake dancing holy rollers.  I’d much prefer to stick to a strict and meaningful interpretation of the word miracle than to apply it to things like recoveries from illness, etc. I know many Christians don’t want to believe in a world now devoid of miracles, but if not, why not go challenging nonbelievers to the challenge like Elijah did to the Baal worshippers in 1 Kings 18?  I think they won’t because they agree with me even more than they think they do.

The Curiousness of Calvinist Libertarianism and Gary North

April 3, 2012 at 11:57 am | Posted in Anarchism, Decentralism, Political theory, Religion | 5 Comments

The Curiousness of Calvinist Libertarianism and Gary North

by Lysander’s Ghost

“There is no neutrality. One’s presuppositions about the nature of God, man, law, causation, and time shape one’s interpretation of all facts. There is no brute factuality, as Cornelius Van Til insisted; there is only interpreted factuality.” (Gary North, Conspiracy in Philadelphia, p. 7)

Gary North has contributed an enormous volume of printed work that has been part of the libertarian movement or at least an interesting cross traveler for several decades.  Most visible are his 700+ articles at LewRockwell.com, probably all of which are supportive of, or at the least, not inconsistent with radical libertarian anarchism.

This article exists precisely because Gary North is often very insightful.  Some of his excellent writings include critical analyses of the Federal Reserve, his arguments for a lifestyle of thrift, advice on market timing, support for home schooling and the Robinson Curriculum, the PhD glut and minimizing college costs, explaining the methods governments influence the price of gold, and highlighting Deuteronomy 20:5-8 as a religious argument not only against a military draft, but against all modern enlistment contracts as well.

This article has many quotes from his book “Conspiracy in Philadelphia” in part because so much of it is not only right, but uniquely original and persuasive to libertarian oriented thinking.  He argues and provides persuasive evidence that the Constitutional Convention of 1789 itself was a coup d’etat.  This article starts with an assumption that his evidence of such is persuasive and overwhelming.  Since he may be the primary re-discoverer of this perspective of history, his perspective on the composition, motives, and goals of the warring parties of pre-Constitutional USA could provide a strong influence on readers to accept his further conclusions.

North identifies the parties at odds in pre-revolutionary America as a Masonic/deistic/unitarian/natural law alliance, along with those they influenced, which includes Federalists and Anti-Federalists on one side, and the Trinitarian Calvinists as represented by the heirs of John Winthrop as the other.  I argue that instead the division is between centralists and decentralists, with centralists being the party who created the coup, instituting the Constitution.  However, as decentralism had popular support, the centralist coup disguised their replacement for the Articles of Confederation with a false appearance of decentralism and natural law, but they did not mean it.  As Lysander Spooner wrote in 1867, the writers of the Constitution, “said a great many good things, which they did not mean, and meant a great many bad things, which they dared not say; that these men, under the false pretence of a government resting on the consent of the whole people, designed to entrap them into a government of a part; who should be powerful and fraudulent enough to cheat the weaker portion out of all the good things that were said, but not meant, and subject them to all the bad things that were meant, but not said.”  (NoTreason, No. 1, sec. X)

To begin, I admit my non-neutrality in this review.  I come from a Christian anarchist perspective fundamentally hostile in many ways to North’s religion.  This article is an unrepentant argument for where I disagree with him.  Eventually in some other article, I hope to enlighten the reader to my Christian anarchist perspective that was nearly exterminated from the US, by both the carrot and stick of government suppression.

To summarize my bias, my heritage is of the Churches of Christ influenced by the anarchist David Lipscomb1 and before him the classical liberal Alexander Campbell.  Campbell was, according to supporters and opponents alike, influenced by the Scottish Enlightenment and took a perspective influenced by the triumvirate of Isaac NewtonFrancis Bacon, and John Locke which led him to reject his Calvinist Presbyterian heritage.  The Biblical interpretations developed were believer-rationalist.  (As opposed to non-believer rationalist or believer-mysticist.)   So while other sects were indecisive regarding contemporary miraculous events, those influenced by Campbell would disbelieve in post-Apostolic supernatural events or expect some odd religious experience to overtake oneself.  Instead it focused on religion as an individual decision by people who are able to choose to do good or evil.

Gary North, is, more than anything a Calvinist, many of his arguments seem to present a radical Calvinist view for free markets, but to find out his desired “end stage” free society (if not a misnomer) his writings on libertarian websites are silent and you must delve into his massive quantity of religious writings.  Every interpretation of factuality for North is symbolically tied to defending Calvinism and opposing its enemies.  But do some of his more significant historical narratives and concept associations hold up?

To understand North one must understand John Calvin first.  There is no better point than the most notorious act of John Calvin, the execution of Michael Servetus.[1]  Any radical Calvinist has to make this seem at least partly justifiable.  Servetus was neither Arian, not Sabellian and accepted the divinity of Jesus, but was a non-trinitarian and an advocate of voluntary baptism, and so Calvin wrote:

“Servetus has just sent me a long volume of his ravings. If I consent he will come here, but I will not give my word for if he comes here, if my authority is worth anything, I will never permit him to depart alive.”  (Letter to William Farel, Feb. 13, 1546)

Calvin’s authority in Geneva was significant.  Servetus did not depart alive.  The peaceful scientist and scholar was burned on the stake.  Though killed by Calvinist religious intolerance, the Catholics and Lutherans wanted the same fate for Servetus and thanked Calvin for doing the dirty work.  Philipp Melanchthon, Luther’s cohort thanked Calvin’s magistrates for the execution.  Before that, Servetus had to flee the Catholic Inquisition due to Calvin getting the Vienna Catholics to go after him.

But there was a contemporary defender of Servetus’ right to think and speak without fear of death for it.  Sebastian Castellio wrote at the time, “When Servetus fought with reasons and writings, he should have been repulsed by reasons and writings.”  In opposition to Castellio, Calvin wrote “Defense of the Orthodox Faith in the Sacred Trinity” to defend repulsing reasons and writings with executions.  This should be considered even more important to understanding applied Calvinism than his Institutes of the Christian Religion3  because of its purpose to defend execution for differences of religious opinion.  Castellio would further challenge the hypocrisy of Calvin’s plea for persecuted Protestants (Institutes, Preface to the King of France) when Calvin did not show the same restrain and mercy.  Further applied moral comparison is seen when no Calvinist leader but only Castellio went to help the poor during a plague while Calvin considered himself too important to risk being around the ill.

The Anabaptists of the Radical Reformation deserve the true credit for bringing the principle of freedom of thought and peaceful coexistence to the West after the Dark Ages.  However, they were too far from mainstream trying to avoid extermination themselves to be a strong influence.  John Milton, in perhaps the most influential moral argument for toleration in his Areopagitica, spread significant and powerful arguments for freedom of thought.  But even before Milton, Castellio promoted the separation of church and state in opposition to Calvin at great personal cost leading to his own poverty due to the political power of Calvin.

Murray Rothbard  popularized an interesting perspective on the secularization of postmillennialism and it becoming an essential element of both Marxism and the secularized Yankee American Protestants.  Murray was wrong by a tangent.  Postmillennialism (supported both by Calvinists and anti-Calvinists) is a belief that implies individuals can successfully shape the future.[2]  It was in fact secularized Calvinism that was the essential element of Marxism and Yankee Protestants.  Postmillennialism could be statist or not, but Calvin was statist as the social structural foundation.

So who wast most influential in secularizing Calvinism?  Jean Jacques Rousseau grew up in the Calvinist stronghold of Geneva and received his childhood education by the study of Calvin’s sermons.[3]  He wrote his most influential political work, The Social Contract while a confessed Calvinist, albeit taking significant secularizing deviances.  It maybe wrongly thought that Calvinism is a hard philosophy to secularize because it argues that man cannot learn of God, good, or evil except through scripture, and even then not by choice.  However, in fact and application due to the authority given to the state to punish heresy and the opposition to natural law, what is secularized is the form, the social structure of Calvinism.  A Calvinist society is (and was in Genevan history) one where the civil government’s duty is to enforce the absolute Calvinist creed.  Calvinists actually think of this as the “proper type” of separation of church and state.  Secularized Calvinism is still a society opposed to natural law, claiming it to be a myth.[4]  Instead, it merely replaces the written religious creed with the civil statute.  Both theocratic Calvinism and civic Calvinism make the creeds/statutes absolute as interpreted by man via the state.  Secularized Calvinism is positivism.

Calvinists support a type of separation of church and state, but how meaningful could it be?  Calvin’s successor and disciple, Theodore Beza also wrote “On the Punishment of Heretics by the Civil Magistrate” in 1554 to further promote the Calvinist totalitarian state position that liberty of conscious was a “diabolical doctrine.”  North would similarly write, “So let us be blunt about it: we must use the doctrine of religious liberty to gain independence for Christian schools until we train up a generation of people who know that there is no religious neutrality, no neutral law, no neutral education, and no neutral civil government. Then they will get busy in constructing a Bible-based social, political, and religious order which finally denies the religious liberty of the enemies of God.” (The Failure of the American Baptist Culture, p. 25)

Before North was so blunt in stating the Calvinist position, Rousseau wrote, “…no State has ever been founded without a religious basis…Every religion, therefore, being attached solely to the laws of the State which prescribed it, there was no way of converting a people except by enslaving it, and there could be no missionaries save conquerors.”  (Social Contract, Bk. 4, Sec. 8)

In Rousseau, the natural goodness of man only superficially seems opposed to Calvinist original sin.  In fact, this goodness represents the Edenic era, and for Rousseau, when humans create the concept of property (remember, in Calvinism there could be no natural law for property so property is artificial) this becomes the secularized original sin and fall of man.  His “General Will” is like a secularization of God, but more than that because Calvinists considered their interpretation as in their creeds absolute enough to use it to determine heresies worthy of death.  Likewise Rousseau considered religious truths as determined by the legislature equally enforceable by death and wrote, “If any one, after publicly recognising these dogmas [civil religion], behaves as if he does not believe them, let him be punished by death: he has committed the worst of all crimes, that of lying before the law.” (Social Contract, Bk. 4, Sec. 8)  Rousseau said the people “must be forced to be free.”  Is this not identical to Calvin’s philosophy of forcing heretics to recant or die?  Rousseau’s argument that the General Will is infallible also derives from Calvin’s insistence that his scriptural interpretation was correct because if “the Elect” could misinterpret, then God would be the author of confusion.

Libertarians are pretty familiar with the historical development of modern totalitarianism starting with the French Revolution, Hegel, Marx, etc. with Rousseau as a godfather of it all.  Hopefully this is enough basis to show that Calvinism is the root of all of it through Rousseau.

Finally, if the sceptic still doubts Rousseau’s debt to Calvin for his Social Contract concept of total government, read his own comments on Calvin specifically regarding their agreement on political organization:

“Those who know Calvin only as a theologian much under-estimate the extent of his genius. The codification of our wise edicts, in which he played a large part, does him no less honour than his Institutes. Whatever revolution time may bring in our religion, so long as the spirit of patriotism and liberty still lives among us, the memory of this great man will be for ever blessed.” (Social Contract, Bk II, sec. 7, footnote 13)

Calvinist politics was what Rousseau learned, experienced, loved, imitated, idealized, and claimed for his own.  Was the French Reign of Terror applicationally any different than Geneva’s Reign of Calvin?

Returning to Gary North, his  symbolic bad guy should be like Servetus.  This person (for US History) is Roger Williams.  While Williams was a trinitarian, he peacefully tolerated non-trinitarianism.

“Roger Williams fled Massachusetts and headed into the wilderness of what was to become Rhode Island. Williams successfully created a new colony, but it was far more than a new colony; it was a new concept of civil government. It was a concept that has become dominant today – the distinguishing mark of political modernism. He founded a colony that was openly secular; there would be no church-state connection, or even a religion-state connection.”  (CIP, p. 9)

“[Rhode Island] was the first civil order in the West to break with the concept of trinitarian civil covenantalism. This tiny colony, established self-consciously as an alternative to the theocracy of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, was the birthplace of modern political pluralism.”  (CIP, p. 13)

Breaking with “trinitarian civil covenantalism” makes Rhode Island bad, like Servetus.  Even tolerating such is just as bad, as Calvin wrote “Whoever shall maintain that wrong is done to heretics and blasphemers in punishing them makes himself an accomplice in their crime and guilty as they are.”  (Defense of the Orthodox Faith, 1554) (Although writing this article means I’m worthy of death by Calvinism, that is not the reason I use a pseudonym.)

“Theologically and philosophically, unitarianism was an eighteenth century phenomenon, with theological roots in the late seventeenth century, especially in the systematically concealed theology of the most influential unitarian in Western history, Sir Isaac Newton.”  (CIP, p. xviii)

So even Isaac Newton deserves blame for the power growth of the modern American nation-state?  I won’t take the tangent to defend Newton here further than to say that the excesses of strict rationalism that Newton inspired (though opposed) has been corrected by Karl Popper and critical rationalism without falling into irrationalism.  It seems that politically, the Unitarians in the 18th century were the allies and heirs of the Calvinist social structure of Massachusetts, and were the major part of Boston by the end of the American Revolution.  President John Adams also represents this change from Calvinist to Unitarian without a change in faith in a coercive centralized state.  Unlike Servetus, American Unitarians were a half-secularized version of Calvinism that Murray Rothbard grouped as “postmillennial pietists.”  Besides the direct geographical, family, and government influenced secularized Yankee Calvinism, the American Unitarians[5] were influenced by Rousseau’s Calvinism.  Their negative influence on America does not provide evidence against “freedom of religion” because, like the Calvinists and Rousseau, they did not really believe in freedom of religion as they claimed because they had not grasped that the centralized state they supported was their real religion, and one they intended to compel on others through compulsory education laws, which they were the first to implement in 1844, in Massachusetts.

“[Unitarianism] gained influence politically after 1830 in the North because most American Protestants in the North had already adopted its political conclusion regarding the necessity of a unitary state, a state that matched Unitarianism’s doctrine of God.” (CIP, p. xviii)

How does a unitary God imply a unitary state?  Does a fat wallet imply a fat belly?  Analogy is not proof and this important claim seems left unargued.  Perhaps some Calvinist can provide an argument for this that I have not yet found.

“The political history of the United States after 1688 has essentially been the extension of Roger Williams’ view of civil government, as opposed to John Winthrop’s….  But if Rhode Island was not the explicit political-theological representative model in eighteenth-century colonial America, what was?” (CIP p. 13)

To answer his question: these two models fought, but merged.  As both secularized, the “freedom of thought” of Williams became the outward face, but the total state model of Winthrop became the hidden cornerstone.  Although Williams believed in believer’s baptism, like most Baptists he still supported most if not all of the 5 points of Calvinism[6] and attacked Arminianism, and so even when Baptists occasionally try to promote freedom, they pit their belief in voluntaryism (inherent in the voluntary baptism doctrine) with their Calvinist influences. (See the TULIP.)  Winthrop, besides governing constant condemnations and death sentences for heresy, considered the Native Americans had no title to the land and so made war with them.  Williams intentionally tried to seek fair dealings and relations with the Native Americans.  Notice that Winthrop’s actions are completely consistent with the Calvinist rejection of natural law, and William’s actions are here consistent with support for natural law.  Further, it may be little more than anecdotal evidence that the Bush family is descended from Winthrop, and, as far as I can tell, not Williams.

Gary North would have the focus between the Winthrop vs. Williams model as the issue of freedom of thought.  But if that is just the face, and belief or disbelief in natural law is the meaningful core, then we get a new picture where Calvinism through Rousseau in Europe, but directly through the Puritans in America built a nation that increasingly rejected natural law yet with occasional lip service to it, then the continuous decline in individual sovereignty is a direct continuation, even down to individual families of influence, from Winthrop.[7]

Gary North specifically addresses what he calls “halfway covenantalism” in the US citing the influence of Rev.  John Witherspoon and the legal theory of William Blackstone.  Blackstone, as North acknowledges, promoted an “absolute judicial sovereignty of Parliament.” (CIP, p. 20)  Prior to this investiture in Parliament, there was the absolute power within the King of England called the Divine Right of Kings.  Absolute power transfers quickly between human institutions without cessation as long as people believe in absolute power whenever one institution gains the majority of relative power.

Blackstone believed in a face of natural law, as North quotes him,  “This law of nature, being co-eval with mankind and dictated by God himself, is of course superior in obligation to any other.”  But North quotes Blackstone further, “But every man now finds the contrary in his own experience; that his reason is corrupt, and his understanding full of ignorance and error…the revealed law is (humanly speaking) of infinitely more authority than what we generally call the natural law… If we could be as certain of the latter as we are of the former, both would have an equal authority; but, till then, they can never be put in any competition together.” (CIP, p. 21)

So Blackstone promotes the human ability of the state to interpret scripture as infinitely more reliable than any interpretation of natural law.  This is really not a defense of natural law, but a false and superficial concession like a right to beg for mercy.

North also provides evidence of the poisoning of natural law beliefs with the overlapping domination of Calvinism.  “From the time of the Puritans until about the middle of the nineteenth century, American evangelicalism was dominated by a Calvinistic vision of a Christian culture.”  (The Failure of American Baptist Culture, p.5)  And elsewhere,  “By the early eighteenth century, natural law doctrines were universally accepted by all educated men in the colonies.” (CIP, p. 62)

North makes a major oversimplification, ignoring the difference between superficial verses consistent natural law doctrines.  Anything short of Lysander Spooner’s natural law perspective is necessarily superficial, having less power than the state.  The opposite of natural law doctrine is unlimited sovereignty.  Since North argues that Blackstone supported the unlimited power of parliament, and likewise the Constitution provided no external limitation, these are proof that natural law never took hold in America and was only popular as a superficial concept left over from the justification for independence.

The Federalists under Hamilton and Washington blurred the concept of natural law with an effectively unbounded legislature (despite their claims) because they could profit and secure power thereby.  North intentionally perpetuates the error so as to blame natural law theory for the evils that quite naturally followed from Federalist-Constitutionalism.

Similar to Blackstone, Calvinism makes concessions to Biblical scripture, but at root they believed in the absolute power, even unto unlimited capital punishment, of their interpretation of scripture rather than scripture itself.  Recall the Calvinist (Van Tillian) position believing only in interpreted factuality with no brute factuality.  The unspeakable next conclusion is that if scripture is fact, there is no brute scriptural factuality, only interpreted scriptural factuality.

This may seem to be too rational a deduction for Calvinists, given their belief in Total Depravity.  But even Calvinists must have a moment of doubt when their natural reason sees a contradiction.  It is to this I appeal in Calvinist readers.

But should a criticism end with Calvin?  Actually, Calvin claimed to expand on Augustine, and that is true enough.  Just like Calvin had his Servetus, Augustine had his Pelagius.  Twice Pelagius had the chance to defend himself from the accusations of Augustine of heresy, and both times he was acquitted.  So Augustine engineered two synods with Pelagius unable to defend himself in order to get a condemnation.  These synods sent their evidence also to Bishop Zosimus of Rome, and when Pelagius’ defense was received, he was again acquitted, but the acquittal was later overturned due to Augustine’s side bribing the Roman Emperor Honorius to outlaw Pelagius and his beliefs, and then the Roman state coercing Zosimus to change his position.[8]  It is only by such statism has original sin theology been ramrodded into Christianity, and opposition to it made heretical.

As followers of Augustine’s actions, the Westminster Confession of Faith would establish as strict Calvinist dogma: “…he [the Civil Magistrate] has authority, and it is his duty, to take order that unity and peace be preserved in the Church, that the truth of God be kept pure and entire, that all blasphemies and heresies be suppressed, all corruptions and abuses in worship and discipline prevented or reformed, and all the ordainances of God duly settled, administrated, and observed. For the better effecting whereof, he has power to call synods, to be present at them and to provide that whatsoever is transacted in them be according to the mind of God”  (Westminster Confession of Faith, 1646, Ch. XXIII, sec. 3)

Then Rousseau took the next step. He repeated the Calvinist demand for the state to enforce religion (or a secularization) on the whole society: “For the State to be peaceable and for harmony to be maintained, all the citizens without exception would have to be good Christians.” And in the same section, “Of all Christian writers, the philosopher Hobbes alone has seen the evil and how to remedy it, and has dared to propose the reunion of the two heads [church and state] of the eagle, and the restoration throughout of political unity, without which no State or government will ever be rightly constituted.”  (Social Contract, Bk IV, sec. 8)

Augustine’s belief system was an attempt to explain his own lack of ability to control his own sexual desire using his Manichaean dualism (flesh is bad, spirit is good) and Neoplatonism as a means to interpret Christian scriptures.  He took the concept of Original Sin, which was most likely invented in the wildly imaginative mind of Origen, who likely created it to explain and justify infant baptism, a practice that Church Father Tertullian argued against in a manner as if he had never heard that it was actually practiced by some.  Augustine expanded it to make all sexual activity, even in marriage as innately evil, and thus a baby is born due to the evil lust necessary for a man to impregnate his wife, and so an infant is thereby born in sin too.

Calvin wrote, “”Again I ask: whence does it happen that Adam’s fall irremediably involved so many peoples, together with their infant offspring, in eternal death unless because it so pleased God? … The decree is dreadful indeed, I confess.” (Institutes, Bk 3, Ch 23, s. 7)  And we see the belief came from Augustine.

Just as Augustine used violent coercive power of the state against the more ethical Pelagius, he had already done so against the Donatists.  Augustinianism is a foundation of Catholicism and all mainstream Protestants, excluding the Radical Reformation and other Restorationist movements.  Despite some good limits in his Just War Theory, libertarians should be wary of those influenced by Augustine.

North wrote of my religious heritage, “The Church of Christ may be the most self-conscious Arminian denomination m the world, whose founders left Presbyterianism in the 1820’s because they could not stand Calvinism.”  (North, The Legitimacy of Revival, 1995)  The problem with this statement is that Arminianism is Calvinism-lite, still accepting original sin, total depravity, involuntary baptism, and faith only.  The Church of Christ rejects Arminianism because we reject these gnostic-platonic doctrines.  I take the statement, “they could not stand Calvinism” as a great compliment. For those further interested, see this article of a comparison of Alexander Campbell’s religious similarities to Thomas Jefferson, particularly regarding their mutual quotes of disdain for Calvinists.  www.leroygarrett.org/ac_tj/chap04.htm


Technically, rationalism is separate from libertarianism but I see it as a necessary foundation, given the limitations for human error in empiricism as warned by Karl Popper, so I address it in relation to Calvinism also.

North as an explicit Calvinist places his beliefs outside of rationalism or irrationalism.  “Rationalism and irrationalism are inherent in all forms of non-Christian thought.” (CIP, p. 47)  But the perspective of rationalism vs. irrationalism as a false dichotomy is common to almost all irrationalists.  The rationalist sees no third alternative.  You may ask how can you persuade an irrationalist?  Not until they first decide to accept the natural reasoning within their own mind against their artificial training.

Calvinist presuppositional apologetics starts with belief in Christian revealed scripture as truth, strictly rejecting the need or possibility for rational arguments undergirding that, as this is their foundational belief.  Calvin wrote, “…it is utterly inconsistent to transfer the preparation for destruction to anything but God’s secret plan…it is very wicked merely to investigate the causes of God’s will.” (Institutes B 3, Ch 23, s. 1)  In other words, if you don’t understand it is because God won’t let you understand, and don’t try as it is a secret.

Presuppositionalism also ignores the question of knowing the actual contents of scripture, much less interpretation.  If I argue that that all known Greek New Testament texts contain simple and obvious errors that only make sense if translated from an original in Aramaic, how do they argue which language scripture was originally in or the books that constitute it?  They argue you must start with scripture, but with no means or allowance to prove the boundaries or language of the canon of scripture, except to demand that there is one that must be enforced by the state.

According to Calvinism, you can’t judge the Bible true.  God chooses those who will accept it.  Following the Creed is just external evidence God has probably accepted (predestined) you.  Although debating the rightness of it for the purpose of persuasion is vain, an irrationalist is not bound to consistency, and often does a combination of arguing, killing, or book burning, which ever is seems best among options of the moment.  A Calvinist accepts scripture as a fixed whole without interpretational differences from the All-Powerful-Creed.  There could be no debate on particular contents of scripture.

Socialism did not result in its greatest evils because of the motto “from each according to his ability, to each according to his need,” even if libertarians often attack that motto.  Technically, libertarianism is indifferent because that motto doesn’t address the use of force or violation of rights and property.

Similarly, Calvinism does not result in its great evils because of its claim to put scripture first.  Where it mimics socialism (or more accurately, socialism mimics Calvinism) is not placing meaningful limits on those in power to interpret the supposedly absolute rule(s).  Whereas socialism took till Leninist-Marxism to have the chance to create totalitarian power, Calvinism took no time and it was pure Calvinist Calvinism in Geneva that created totalitarianism.

So given all this, are the Covenantal Calvinists like North libertarians?  The answer seems clear, but then if you look closely, I don’t think they ever claimed to be.  I am not claiming them to be dishonest.  They just have some significant overlaps where we can share scholarship, and we should.  But like the philosopher Bertrand Russell who made important advances for rigorous logic and metalogic, sometimes great ideas on a topic are advanced by those who don’t want to be bound by rationalism.  Irrationalists love to confound others, and sometimes do so by being quite rational.

Calvinism, like Calvinist scripture perhaps, has no brute factuality.  It is ironically possible to reinterpret Calvinism to be as pro-liberty as the extreme of anarcho-capitalism, as this theonomist Calvinist website tries to argue.  While I wish anyone the best of luck in such an endeavor, for the reasons presented in this article, I’m sure no one will expect me to gain much enthusiasm for it.

[1]For a very detailed proof that Calvin was not only responsible for the murder of Servetus, but of false witness and cover up, see this online book: http://www.jesuswordsonly.com/Lessons/Did%20Calvin%20Murder%20Servetus.pdf

[2]Premillennialism was originally more the opposite.  It foresaw a bad future that was unavoidable.  Only with 20th century premillennialism did premillennialists actualy decide to act to bring about the evils they believed necessary before a Second Coming.

[3]Gary North even provides some of Calvin’s sermons on his website for free under the section “Calvin Speaks”.  This might be useful for a young history student who wants to show more rigorously  how much Rousseau was influenced by Calvin.

[4]Serious libertarians also debate the metaphysical existence of natural law and rights, but however they choose to define or avoid certain terminology, they still believe in acting just as if they believe in natural law.   In contrast the Calvinists not only denied natural law, but acted contrary to it on principle.

[5]Admittedly, this is unfair to group all Unitarians as such.  I’m sure a more detailed history would find important exceptions.

[6]For a detailed analysis of the overlap and differences of Calvin and Williams, see http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NXG/is_2_39/ai_n6116658

[7]It is too much for this article, but the Anglicans starting in Virginia deserve near equal condemnation in the controlling corruption of America.

[8]For sources and a detailed expansion, See this article on “The Sins of Augustine.”  http://www.gospeltruth.net/stmorgan.htm

Deconstruction of Racism and Its Roots in Church of Christ History

March 31, 2012 at 10:10 am | Posted in Anarchism, Decentralism, Political theory, Religion | 1 Comment

In this article, mostly a history lesson, followed by a moral lesson, I’ll state my biases and the nature of the existing discussion on the topic, arguing both mainstream sides in the wrong. The standard Church of Christ collegiate (liberal-progressive) position on racism is to address and acknowledge the history and facts of the racism in the Churches of Christ, and then point to this as obvious evidence of a fallacious theological approach of the conservatives represented by the period of explicit racism in the Churches of Christ, which I give approximate but meaningful dates of influence of 1917 to 1979. The standard mid-20th century style CoC conservative response has been… silence. I’ve never heard one give any serious response or acknowledge the past problem. I see this conservative branch as intellectually dead where its main method of survival is not hearing intelligent opposing challenges.

Due to the silence of the conservatives, the liberal-progressive element grows effectively without opposition. I was there at the 1997 ACU Lectureship when the ACU president acknowledged the racism of the CoC past, particularly ACU’s part by denying black Christians enrollment in the school, and made apologies to the president of Southwest Christian College, a historically black college that existed mainly because black Christians could not enter ACU. But behind the sincere apology for racism was an implicit but very strong jab at the dogmatic conservatism represented by the deceased Foy E. Wallace Jr., who was also the most explicit racist.

I date a “reign of racism” (symbolic not literal) from 1917 to 1979 for two reasons. Those were the years of the deaths of two of the most influential people in the Churches of Christ, who also had the most opposite positions on race. David Lipscomb (1831-1917) was thoroughly anti-racist, arguing that dividing and segregating congregations by race was “blasphemous” and specifically attacked a Church of Christ in McKinney, TX in 1878 for refusing membership to a black Christian. Foy E. Wallace Jr. (1896-1979) was the next “most influential” member after Lipscomb and had a strictly opposite position, arguing, sadly enough, that white Christians should not even listen to black Church of Christ preachers, much less be in the same congregation. Wallace’s most infamously stated his position in his 1941 Bible Banner here. Wallace would even defend racism in the church because lack of racism “lowers the church in the eyes of the world.” So Wallace, living in a more “enlightened” time than Lipscomb was radically more barbaric in morals.

So the liberal-progressives acknowledge this, and without being so explicit, they conclude that to maintain such a barbaric moral standard as Wallace’s racism, he must have had a bad theological methodology. I agree completely with this critical position on Wallace, but because the liberal-progressives have had no oppositional dialog, they have not had their own conclusions about correcting Wallace’s theology challenged. As I will argue, they not only have lead into theological errors of their own, but they are ironically, and counter-intuitively, the true modern heirs of Foy E. Wallace Jr.

To understand this, one must understand the nature, purpose, and origin of racism, or at least the version that existed in context. Racism existed to justify a hegemonic relationship between those in political power, and a simple means to separate out some to exclude from power. While it obviously existed in race based slavery, the most modern version of racism had an explosive growth of influence due to the the movie “Birth of a Nation” in 1913. The plot of the movie takes place in the US after the “Civil War”. In it, blacks are the bad guys and one black tries to coerce a white woman to marry him, and she throws herself off a cliff to escape him. Blacks also threaten the Southern whites, but Northern whites save the Southern whites, and later on the KKK helps bring “justice”. The most important thing to notice is that this movie (one of the most influential movies in the history of the world, in part for really being the first real movie) is as a movie designed to persuade the audience to accept a North-South reconciliation where the North symbolically saves the South and, by making up a new enemy, they “forgive” past differences and unite against that new enemy. That is the real nature of nationalism, as David Lipscomb warned. It artificially creates enemies in order to build support for itself.

That can’t be overlooked. Until “Birth of a Nation”, the South was ideologically separate from the North and the North created and promoted this movie as a means to reintegrate them. It was produced with the full support of the US military who provided US cavalry to play the KKK. It also spurred the second formation of the KKK, which most people today didn’t realize was a Northern, Yankee based organization in this, its largest and most powerful iteration. The “Birth of a Nation” supporters and their KKK were pro-Lincoln to the core, and held Lincoln’s type of racism. Lincoln infamously had the first meeting of a president with American blacks, but the purpose was to convince them that they could not be part of America and had to return to Africa.

Sadly, Birth of a Nation was enormously successful in getting the bulk of Southern whites to be “pro-American” again, pro Lincoln for the first time, become even much more racist, and to accept the “United States” as if legitimate again. Before that, you would not catch Southerners patriotically praising the symbols of American nationalism and feeling like a part of it. When you see people flying or supporting both the Confederate battle flag and the US flag, or a Southern supporter of Lincoln, that uniting of opposites and enemies who killed over half a million people as if they were friendly again, those people are the remnant of direct unchanged heirs of the influence of Birth of a Nation. What is more interesting, and to soon be addressed, is the changed, evolved heirs of Birth of a Nation.

Separately, there was another pro-Lincoln movement that would embody centralized nationalism to be the most openly idolatrous direction in American history. This movement was started by Baptist cousins Edward and Frances Bellamy. One wrote the massively popular Christian Socialist utopian novel called Looking Backward in 1888. Anyone who took college American history should recognize it. The other cousin wrote the Pledge of Allegiance in 1892, immortalized the flag’s use for an idolatrous oath to a piece of cloth. This was done in order to convince schools to buy flags from their organization and make school children chant the ritual oath, of which every phrase represented an oath to Lincolnite centralism. Their movement was variously called Nationalism, (which was also the name of their periodical) Christian Socialism, military socialism, industrial socialism, and yes National Socialism. Did you wonder where the German straight arm Nazi salute to the German flag came from? It came from the Bellamy’s straight arm salute to the US flag that the American National Socialism movement started first. That didn’t change to the “hand over heart” till 1942 when Congress made a superficial attempt to be different from German National Socialism. This is also why it was common to see the “swastika” in the US from 1910 to 1935, because the Germans adopted it from the Americans, including the ideology of Lincolnite centralism and the name National Socialism itself.

As you can guess, the National Socialism movement and the Birth of a Nation movement were two expressions of the same idea and effectively merged, which is how the KKK started using the swastika before the Germans did. The German Nazi movement also tried to copy their patriotic American fore-bearers’ “Birth of a Nation” with their own similar movie in 1940 to use racism as a device to foster nationalism called “Jud Suss”.

So now you know some of the background of 20th century American racism. Racism existed for the purpose of promoting American nationalism. It was the scaffold, and as most Southerners are now pro-US government, it was a thoroughly successful propaganda technique. Nationalism was the ulterior purpose of racism, and so a greater evil than racism too. Once racism was successful in ideologically subjugating Southern whites, like any scaffold it was no longer needed. After WWII, the American Elite saw the need to persuade blacks into American nationalism and so it dispensed with racism. Some Southerners persistent in conserving the 1913 Birth of a Nation influence, hence called conservatives due to retaining the older type of nationalism, ironically enough since racial segregation was the ideology of “progressive” Woodrow Wilson. And those who abandoned racism starting around 1950 are called liberal or progressive because they follow the trends of change in the root of nationalism. Those who were historically never racist to begin with should neither be termed conservative nor liberal. That also means they never supported Lincoln, the Union, nor the Confederacy either.

Now return to how this affected the Churches of Christ. David Lipscomb opposed not just all elements of racism, but the core foundation from which racism was just one particular expression of the greater evil of national socialism, warmongering, and militarism because he opposed the root idolatry, namely, nationalism. His influence could only keep the American patriotism/idolatry of Birth of a Nation, the KKK, and the Bellamy’s away for so long because immediately after he died in 1917, the Gospel Advocate editor was threatened with jail and all property confiscated because of the Gospel Advocate’s anti-war, anti-draft, and anti-nationalism articles. Facing this enormous persecution, Editor McQuiddy gave in to the US government’s demands to stop all such writing. Without a strong voice warning the Churches of Christ against the idolatrous pull of nationalism, it was only a matter of time before someone would gain influence while openly promoting nationalism. That role fell to Foy E. Wallace Jr. While Lipscomb encouraged us to be not apart of the world, nor the “prince of this world’s” governments, Wallace would turn to the Protestant position of Calvin and Luther of explicit support, use, and participation with nationalism and its racism and militarism. It should be no surprise to educated members of the Churches of Christ that besides Foy Wallace Jr. being the prime proponent of charge from anti-racism to racism, he was also prime proponent of change from pacifism to militarism, because, as can be seen racism and militarism came wholly from the same root evil, just as “Birth of a Nation” was filmed with the full support of the West Point military academy.

Church of Christ historians will tell you that by the late 1920s, that the KKK meetings could even be tolerated in Church of Christ buildings. There was apparently discussion of such in the Gospel Advocate of the 1920s, but I’m not in a location to read such archives to give examples or specifics. What must be understood is that Wallace was a racist precisely because he was a nationalist. If a person rejects the barbarism of racism today, that does not mean one is more enlightened than the barbaric Wallace, because nationalism no longer needs or promotes racism. If in fact a person promotes modern nationalism, with its systems of government without universal consent or idolatry under the modern euphemism of patriotism, supports the military and prays for “our” troops, one is really no more enlightened than Wallace.

So in short, both the mid-20th Century style conservatives, which I would represent as by the Brown Trail School of Preaching, and the modern liberal-progressives as represented by ACU are equally nationalistic. Both sides are therefore equally heirs of Foy E. Wallace Jr. only the progressives acknowledge the past in order to promote a “Doctrine of Grace”, which is the term Baptists use for promoting Calvinism when they don’t want to call it Calvinism. One intriguing perspective on that issue is by one Independent Baptist, of all things, who outlines the evils of Calvinism as he acknowledges it is a cancer in the Baptist churches. Just as Calvin opposed voluntary religion, he acted consistent with his theology in promoting executions for believers in voluntary baptism and voluntary society. Another influence on the Progressives is Luther’s “faith only” theology, without realizing just how murderous and evil Luther really was, such as in practice against our Anabaptist allies in Christ, and in his written desires, against the Jews. The Holocaust really was a culmination of Lutheranism and the faith only theology, mixed with Lincolnite American nationalism transplanted into Germany.

The Christian answer lies in turning back to the old paths before we were corrupted by giving in to persecution in 1917 so that we could enjoy the pleasures (middle class comfort) of sin (nationalism) for a season. David Lipscomb was far more right than hardly any of us can imagine. In fact, it was an economist (Prof. Ed Stringham) outside the Churches of Christ who rediscovered how David Lipscomb wrote about the nature of governments almost one hundred years before great economists would independently rediscover these truths, such as in this article. Professor Stringham would even include Lipscomb’s writings in his book, Anarchy and the Law.

During the lifetime of Lipscomb, a historian Franz Oppenheimer would write something that would further explain Lipscomb’s arguments, although not translated into English till 1922, after Lipscomb’s death:

“There are two fundamentally opposed means whereby man, requiring sustenance, is impelled to obtain the necessary means for satisfying his desires. These are work and robbery, one’s own labor and the forcible appropriation of the labor of others. . . . I propose in the following discussion to call one’s own labor and the equivalent exchange of one’s own labor for the labor of others, the “economic means” for the satisfaction of need while the unrequited appropriation of the labor of others will be called the “political means”. . . . The State is an organization of the political means. No State, therefore, can come into being until the economic means has created a definite number of objects for the satisfaction of needs, which objects may be taken away or appropriated by warlike robbery.” (The State, pp. 24-27)

The liberal-progressives in the Church of Christ are promoting nationalism, as represented by Max Lucado’s leading a prayer giving religious support to the 2004 Republican National Convention, and they are political conservatives, just like Foy Wallace Jr. The one great work by the “Father of Conservatism”, Edmund Burke, is his “Vindication of Natural Society” and was the strongest conservative essay ever to explain why governments should be limited. Namely, because they are unnatural and unnecessary. However, as Burke would gain political influence, he would deny that the work was serious and say it was only satire, though the work itself proved the opposite. It was nothing like Swift’s “A Modest Proposal”. So conservatives have argued for limiting government for 250 years while simultaneously rejecting the justification for limiting it. For if a government is legitimate, then their is no given reason for it to be limited. They would switch between opposing and supporting state solutions to social problems without an ethical means or reason to draw a line. This hypocrisy is then the core of the conservative duality of promoting and opposing government. Liberals and progressives are those, on the other hand, who have abandoned the hypocrisy for full blown acceptance of the nation-state. They have accepted The Beast in full, the social organizational method founded by Nimrod in Genesis 10. All nation-states are heirs and progenitors of his system.

The very nature (theology) of belief in voluntary individual baptism is the rejection of such a system of social organization without universal individual consent. The Anabaptists proved it by their Godly lifestyle and separation from the state and the persecution and deaths upon them that resulted from the persons, theologies, and churches of Luther and Calvin who had no use for voluntary baptism, voluntary religion, or voluntary society. The Baptists, on the other hand, adopted Calvinism, and so their “voluntary baptism” was not a core value, but just another instance of contradiction and the hypocrisy innate in their conservatism. The term for a social organization consistent with voluntary baptism is intentional community, as practiced by the Anabaptists, and without so clear a term, promoted by David Lipscomb and Tolbert Fanning, or if you are willing to use a more radical term that represents not a society but meta-society, the social system required by the theology of voluntary baptism is libertarian anarchism. That is the provision of goods only by the “economic means” of creation and production but never the “political means” of theft, compulsory taxation, and such types of duress and extortion.

Are the Mormon Elite all Bad People?

August 31, 2007 at 3:30 pm | Posted in Religion | Leave a comment

The official LDS church maybe notorious among the Hellenisticly monogamous Western World for having promoted and practiced polygamy over a century ago. However, among those who believe in “doing no harm to a neighbor” that is irrelevant. They are notorious as strict persecutors of their own true believers in Mormonism.

Mormons in the late 1800s had just enough political power to influence major political elections. Joseph Smith bartered the Mormon vote for political favors even before he ran for president in 1844. The mainstream politicians didn’t like Mormons taking a piece of the political pie and so decided to prosecute polygamy as a way to stop them. The Mormon elite had a choice. They could sell out their doctrines and destroy their families and regain political privilege, or they could suffer through the persecution of the tyrannical American government. They chose the former.

Consider this:

Much less clear is the church’s position on polygamy in the eternal hereafter. When a Mormon man and woman are married in the Temple, they are “sealed,” which means they and their children will be bound together forever in heaven—what Mormons call the celestial kingdom. If a Mormon man becomes a widower, or if he is divorced, he can remarry in the Temple—and thus be sealed to more than one woman. (Mormon women, on the other hand, need to have their previous sealings canceled before they can be sealed again.) Doesn’t this mean, in effect, that men can have multiple wives in heaven? LDS Church officials decline to answer specifically, saying only that “the Lord has not given answers to all the details of life after death. There are some things we simply don’t know.”

How deceptive can they get? They say “we simply don’t know” when the issue is whether 1+1=2 simultaneously sealed wives, and thus “afterlife polygamy.” Do they disbelieve in math? It isn’t a debate about what constitutes a “sealed marriage” because this uses their own beliefs to define it. Why not admit that they believe in polygamy in the afterlife? Remember that the US law only prohibits freedom of religious practices, but claims to allow freedom of religious belief only. Are they worried that US law will be binding in the afterlife?

But the answer to why they do such is pretty obvious. Such an admission fuels the arguments of fundamentalist Mormons. Since the LDS claims polygamy was required once but forbidden today, they are on the morally weak ground of being flip-floppers, and to make up for it, they have become the biggest persecutors of those who didn’t believe the Mormon elite could overrule doctrines and destroy formerly approved families. Now they may claim that it is the state that prosecutes polygamy, but especially in Utah, the LDS is the state. The state does anything only by the approval of the LDS voters.

This brings an essential lesson of “divide and conquer” in religious persecution. The state demands it be accepted as sovereign. A religion refuses. It gets persecuted. The state makes “an offer that can’t be refused” to some leaders of the religion to accept and praise/worship the state as sovereign. Some give in. Those leaders become the wealthy, and powerful by the privilege of the state, and the only ones free to speak their side of the argument. The followers of the original religious beliefs refuse to follow the new leaders or their new direction and beliefs. The new leaders become the new persecutors of their original religion. They even claim that the old believers are ungrateful for their “religious freedom” now provided by the state. The original part of the state that persecuted the religion no longer has to persecute the religion. because the new version of the old religion becomes the most intent on exterminating the old religion, and becomes the real persecutor.

The paragraph above doesn’t refer just to LDS persecution of polygamists, but to most religions in history, including mine. The exceptions are mainly the Anabaptists, the Jehovah’s Witnesses, and I’d be interested in other examples. The state requires the praise of the religions and when they give it, they become de facto state religions.

So for a hundred years, the LDS has been continuously persecuting those who followed older LDS beliefs. Is that all? No. Now we have Mitt Romney, a totalitarian neocon who is trying to force his real religion (statism) on the entire world, killing those who want to be free to live in peace.

Also, I find it odd how so many of the crooks of SCO are Mormons. Did the LDS sell what was left of their souls to Microsoft? Just a quick description. SCO (a Microsoft spin-off) bought some rights (but not copyrights) to license Unix. It then claimed (falsely) to own Unix in total, that Linux contained over 1 million lines of proprietary Unix code (still not finding a single one), claimed that IBM added Unix code to Linux (without evidence), tried to threaten all Linux users to pay it $699 per computer or risk lawsuit, sued companies that used Linux, etc.

In short, multiple Mormon leaders of SCO were and are intimately involved in the fraud and extortion, and their own actions show they knew it was a fraud to begin with. Groklaw shows hundreds of unanswered details. Here is an example of a Mormon who admits SCO has no case and reflects poorly on the LDS church. Ah, but here’s the thing. If some rich and powerful Mormons are acting crookedly and embarrass the whole LDS church, shouldn’t the LDS church publicly rebuke them and/or make them stop? …But as far as anyone knows, they don’t.  The LDS can’t claim people like SCO CEO Darl McBride are so insignificant they’ve never heard of him either. It seems they are quite proud of him.

If the LDS had any morals it would renounce the forced destruction of families and persecution of polygamists. It would renounce totalitarian politicians, both in Utah and national, and crooked abuse and falsification of claims through courts such as by SCO. Since it does not, just like in the SCO case, the LDS as an institution can be dismissed through “summary judgement” without ever needing to consider which of its religious claims might be true or false, because its actions are opposite of both natural moral standards and its own claimed moral standards.

Such is the result of having an extremely centralized religion. Contrary to anti-SCO Mormons, you can judge a centralized body by how it ignores the sins of its own rich and powerful and refuses to discipline them.

 Note: Since someone’s bound to ask: No, I don’t desire to practice polygamy, but I don’t see anything wrong with it, only with destroying families.  A Nigerian friend grew up in a family where his father had five wives.  (Hey J.O.  Are you reading this!  I even referenced you!) 🙂

 UPDATE: Yes, the LDS is officially aware of Darl McBride, and seems to be very tolerant to his brand of extortion.

Since the lawsuits were filed, you personally have been criticized and ridiculed in various blogs and publications. How do you view the comments of your critics? It’s a little bit of a strange twist to the story how I’ve become the most hated man in the industry. I was speaking at Brigham Young University last year, and I held up the Fortune magazine that had me on the cover that said, “He’s corporate enemy No. 1, and his name’s Darl McBride.” I said it must have been a slow year for corporate enemies.

C.S. Lewis, Enemy of the Golden Rule

July 26, 2007 at 11:34 am | Posted in Anarchism, Religion, War | Leave a comment

I’ve been too busy to keep this blog updated regularly.  Nevertheless, I’ve got a new essay published that, like many others, may rile some feathers.  Check it out over at www.strike-the-root.com.  I take an overdue axe to C.S. Lewis’ position as patron saint of modern Christianity.

I am in the process of attempting to change my articles referencing my name to my new pen name: Lysander’s Ghost.  I was warned independently by a recruiter and a hiring manager that my difficulty in actually getting jobs I apply for (even though they say I’m well qualified and they really like me) is that they Google my name and get scared off by my radical essays.  (I didn’t mention to either one that I had any radical essays, they just got curious that there may be something about me on the internet limiting my marketability.)  So now I must retreat to having a superhero’s secret identity.

So besides writing more, I need to find a better job, with a more respectable employer, until I can eventually follow this long term goal.  When our Sr. department manager admits we’ve become the Walmart of our industry, [understood as the lowest quality provider] when we used to be a top quality service provider, its just proof of all my warnings that our management’s philosophy would make us so.

[2012 Edit] Discovered the link is broken on this article and the essay is mistakenly listed under another writer and not found. I’m emailing Strike-the-root.com to see if it is not completely lost and can be restored.

Rothbardian Christian Anarchist Postmillennialism

March 23, 2007 at 11:30 am | Posted in Anarchism, Religion | 8 Comments

Bill Barnwell has a good critique of militarist premillennialism that expands on an excellent one by Gary North. I am personally somewhat a postmillennialist. “Somewhat” because I don’t find the issue dogmatically important, and ironically because my understanding of it could be partly called secular postmillenialism like Rothbard identified Marxism and other Social Gospel beliefs.So why hold such a belief when it has been identified with the American elitist Puritans and their secular followers from Harvard, Yale, etc. and even with Marxism? I believe the answer lies in 1 Samuel 8.

A quick explanation, postmillennialism believes that Christ will return after a period (at least metaphorically 1000 years) of success by Christians in bringing about the spread of Christianity and peace where Christ reigns on earth without physically being here. As a Jehovah’s Witness coworker asked, “How could Jesus reign for 1000 years without first coming back to earth for that reign?” Ah, that’s the key question, and 1 Samuel 8 is the key answer. According to that passage, God reigned on earth until his reign was rejected by creating a centralized nation-state. So God can again reign on earth without Jesus having to be here physically, and that can be accomplished by eliminating nation-states and empires.

In my religious perspective, we might say that God was rejected as king even by his own people from 1 Samuel 8 until the Reformation and the rejection of the Pope as king of the church-state. More accurately, this wasn’t complete because the Reformation still accepted centralized states just as Israel did not return to God by separating into Northern and Southern Kingdoms. The Anabaptists were first, at least among groups still in existence, in the Western World to reject the nation-state as a societal system, But they have been persecuted ever since, and just yesterday I read of Mennonites having to leave Missouri because of laws that would require them to violate their beliefs. Another characteristic of the beginning of the millennium is that Christians will be able to live and practice freely, and not the fake Christianity that lives in symbiosis with the nation-state. They rarely get persecuted because they are the persecutors. No one should feel sympathy when one dynasty replaces another and these pseudo-Christians are punished.

Unlike some Presbyterian postmillennialists, I’m not assuming that the world will be almost entirely Christian. My opinion is that the only requirement for the millennium will be an almost entirely anarchist world. In this sense, even atheists, if at least morally anarchists, have God as their king. Don’t read too much into that, as I don’t intend or try to find a deeper meaning in it. I expect that Christian judges will be respected throughout the world for fair judgement and possibly be sought after even by non-Christians, and Christians will not need to find judges outside the church to obtain justice. This is the opposite of the world of today.

Postmillennialism implies that we have a part in changing the world, and can eventually be successful in making a long lasting utopia like world, even if it won’t last forever. If postmillennialism implies a near utopia where God reigns without being present on earth, why did the secularized Puritans who control the USA think that a centralized nation state was the proper means to get to this utopia?

I think they got caught up on the idea of utopia more than the morals required to create it. Blinded by the power they had already attained, they justified using violence (the nation-state) to try to force people to be like they thought they should in utopia. Ironic that people call anarchism utopian when it is the nation-states that try to mold people as if they were God.

Statism did not begin with 1 Samuel 8. That was just when Israel adopted it. In the Bible, the creator of the first state is Nimrod in Genesis 10. (The beginning of his state was Babel. Babel is the same Hebrew word as Babylon, and is the symbol of the enemy of the people of God from Genesis 10 to Revelation 19.) We might say that these mistakes must be reversed out in reverse order. First, the people of God must eliminate support for the nation-state from our churches. Only then can we work on removing the state, the dynasty of Nimrod from the world to try to start a Biblical millennium of Revelation 20.

Essays to write

January 19, 2007 at 11:37 am | Posted in Anarchism, Decentralism, Political theory, Religion | 2 Comments

[Arrrgg! When editing, WordPress keeps deleting paragraph markers.  I re-add some, and then it deletes others.  I give up… for now.] 

Essays to write, and in approximate order. I am very busy with over-time, job hunting, and family to create these quickly. Though perhaps comments or encouragement might spur a few sleepless nights of creative writing.

Unfermented fraud

Have you noticed that every Christian sect outside of American Evangelical influence has used wine for the Christian Communion/Eucharist practice? Do you wonder how this happened? It is an amazing example of history how and why Protestant Americans invented the belief that Jesus used “unfermented wine” in the seder. No other fraud is so provincial and clearly a case of intentional deception and violent utopian revisionism. It is time to let the Billy Sundays know their fate in the afterlife.

The Guitar Market as a Lesson in Markets

I’ve wasted far too much time window shopping and bargain hunting with an excessive love of the guitar market. I’m probably knowledgeable on 10,000 products. This is a market where, if someone has the talent and knowledge, they can start from a hobby and build it into a full-time business. This is quite unlike, say, the beer market. There are massive governmental barriers so a homebrewer cannot take steps toward an income in brewing. As a result, the guitar market shows massive quality, creativity, customization, craft-as-art, and direct contact, feedback, and real customer service directly with the creator. That’s not all. This isn’t only cottage industry, these small businesses compete directly with big corporate competitors, and both can and do make out well. The major difference is approach. The corporate giants attract by advertising, classic brands, market saturation, universal availability, cheap imports and high end vintage reproductions. The small businesses manage by word of mouth, internet forums of guitar connoisseurs, exceptional quality, internet video and sound samples, and value for the mid and high end market.  I think this example provides lessons beyond tautological free market truths to meta-market general truths, especially relating to asymmetrical knowledge in markets.  

Anarchist IP: A Thought Experiment

Anarchists debate whether Intellectual Property is legitimate, and to what degree. These debates often leave out the essential challenge: How will they be enforced? By reconstructing the debate as if happening within an imaginary or future decentralized anarchist world where pro-IP and anti-IP anarchists might defend their “rights” with guns in hand and no centralized authority, we will see that IP rights would be very limited. It will also be an exploration on the grey border area of natural rights, contract rights, and conventions.

Christianity and Libertarian compatibility: Good, Bad, and Ugly

No holds barred attack on the evils of most “Christianity” from a Christian libertarian perspective. IMO, there can be no ecumenicalism with unlibertarian “Christians” because they refuse to even try to be good people, much less good Christians. Strict (anarchist) libertarianism is a pre-condition for being a good person, and many sects, ideologies, and leaders are evaluated by this standard and found wanting, with only a few exceptions.

Speculative Theory of Value:

The Subjective Theory of Value is often presented too tautologically and doesn’t address that degrees of objectivity are gained to the degree people think alike and predictably. And despite Kevin Carson’s attempt to add marginal utility to the Labor Theory of Value, I think it better to start over. I prioritize the term speculative because its unavoidable nature, and ability to represent both good and bad. Some people try to make speculation to be an evil, but I argue this attack is too broad because all human action is speculative. It is important to address, however, areas like speculation in legal title to land created by states when in fact the land in question would be considered unused, unowned, or common property by natural law. Such speculation should be suspect.It is also shows, in a Popperian critical rationalist sense, that there can’t be a perfect reason for everything. There has to be a point where a guess is a kernel for further scientific evaluation. Subjectivists acknowledge this by the leaving reasons for entrepreneurial decisions as a black box. They don’t try to prove that the entrepreneur had to have strict rational reasons.

Natural and Positive Right Synthesis with Common and Private property:

I believe in natural rights, but I believe there are many grey areas for which it would be foolish to claim that natural law provides all the answers for a successful peaceful world. In many cases the answer is in agreed upon conventions. Natural law doesn’t say whether to drive on the right or left side of a road. Private-property-only theories would say that the private road owners would decide, but this ignores that common roads by nature predated and always predate private roads. Exclusiveness of property is something added (whether justly or not) only after the use of property. In a way, this article will be a continuation of the most influential article I’ve written, but build far beyond it. I think Rothbardian anarchists avoided this because they think it implies a centralized standard maker for each convention. However, not so. It just implies that two groups that don’t agree to some standard just don’t interact in areas where a governing standard would be required.

The Rothbardian Tightrope: Between Coase and George on Land

Rothbard uses the argument that the free-market takes care of just distribution of land regardless of relative inequities in the original distribution, but then rejects the the Coase Theorem for doing the same thing. So is there a consistent middle ground? I think “Locke’s Proviso” for leaving as much and as good land for others is essential to libertarian thought. Ignoring the original distribution effectively requires a Coasian defense that assumes no transaction costs. Here is where speculation becomes an “evil.” If you have a moral framework that assumes something cannot exist and should not matter, then when people try to maximize it and profit off its existence, the moral framework is compromised.

Overcoming the Calling to Ministry Some religious people get a desire they call a “calling to ministry.” If you strongly believe in your religious beliefs, I strongly advise you to rethink it. When people feel this calling, they don’t think how best to fulfill the root desire to educate and help people in a specific way. Instead, they think, “I would like to make this a full time career. What career paths are open, allowing me to devote myself to this fulltime?” Here is the problem. The career paths have been variously designed with or without intent so that your desire to think freely will be compromised. What if you work for a church, responsible for teaching doctrine, but then re-examine something and become uncertain or change opinion? Your career and income are then dependent on maintaining the status quo. Most people who choose a ministry career subconsciously recognize this and modify the direction of their thoughts to solidify their career.What is the problem with this? A cycle is created where the available careers are effectively funded by those with power, and success in the “calling” is dependent on those with power to support the success. Don’t fool yourself into thinking you can ride this dragon without getting either your income or your open-mindedness burned to a crisp. The preachers in my religious movement in the 19th century supported their calling by fulltime work as farmers and such. When fulltime paid ministry became common in the 20th century, not just the passion and humility died, but so did separation from the worldly influences like mainstream political opinions. Even the first step of degrees in Bible from approved colleges is a step through a system designed by state accreditation and government college subsidies. Do you really think this unrelated to why American Evangelical Christianity has become the center of the push for totalitarianism. The GI Bill has played a far too unrecognized part in altering the original anti-war belief of my religious movement. All those federal war profits for colleges had its effect.

Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com.
Entries and comments feeds.